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dc.contributor.authorKarimi, S.
dc.contributor.authorHemami, M.R.
dc.contributor.authorTarkesh Esfahani, M.
dc.contributor.authorBaltzinger, C.
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-28T11:58:09Z
dc.date.available2019-01-28T11:58:09Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.citationKarimi, S., Hemami, M.R., Esfahani, M.T. and Baltzinger, C (2018) The role of brown bear (Ursus arctos) in the plant seed dispersal of Golestan National Park. Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology 7(2) 29-42, doi:10.29252/ijae.7.2.29en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2592
dc.description.abstractThe brown bear (Ursus arctos) is the largest carnivore species in Iran. It can be found in large parts of the Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges, but remarkable densities occur in the northern forest, ranging from Golestan National Park to the western Gilan. We investigated the potential of brown bear for endozoochory in Golestan National Park through a greenhouse experiment. In order to detect the temporal and spatial variability of the emerged seedlings, abundance, species richness and composition of the germinated seeds from the faecal samples collected in different habitats and across seasons were analyzed. A total of 268 seedlings belonging to 33 plant taxa, 25 genera and 19 families germinated from 64 brown bear faecal samples. Based on the obtained results, we could show seasonal variability in the number (P=0.003) and composition (P=0.001) of the dispersed seeds, which could be attributed to the plant species phenology. There were no significant differences regarding seed abundance and composition between the two types of habitats. Similarly, seed species richness did not significantly differ across seasons and habitats. Herbaceous growth form (24 taxa) represented the highest species richness in the germinated plants, while shrub plants were the most abundant germinated species (76% of the total germinated seeds). Fleshy fruits were the principal source of energy during the hyperphagia phase prior to hibernation. In contrast, seeds from dry fruits were observed in lower densities in the faeces, especially during spring and early summer. This was in line with the opportunistic feeding behavior of the brown bear. Considering that co-occurring ungulates in Golestan National Park are rather dispersed annual species, we could highlight the role of the brown bear in specifically dispersing shrub and tree species.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.subjectendozoochoryen_ZA
dc.subjectmammalian omnivoresen_ZA
dc.subjectgrowth formen_ZA
dc.subjectseed abundance and species richnessen_ZA
dc.subjecttemporal and spatial variabilityen_ZA
dc.titleThe role of brown bear (Ursus arctos) in the plant seed dispersal of Golestan National Parken_ZA
dc.typeJournalArticlesen_ZA
dc.cibjournalIranian Journal of Applied Ecologyen_ZA
dc.cibprojectNAen_ZA


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