Prioritising pathways of unintentional introduction and spread of invasive alien species in Germany
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To implement Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014, the most important pathways of unintentional introduction and spread of invasive alien species of Union concern in Germany need to be identified. Based on the standardised pathway classification scheme of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), we analysed the pathways of introduction and spread of the 37 species of Union concern in Germany. In terms of the volume of species (number of species using a particular pathway, verified or most likely), the pathways 'Unaided (unsupported by humans)', 'Interconnected waterways/basins/seas', 'Pet trade/aquaristics/terrarium' and 'Ornamental purpose other than horticulture' dominate. An additional analysis of the 93 species considered invasive in Germany generally delivered similar results but also revealed 'Ballast water' and 'Contaminated nursery material' as highly relevant. Action plans that still need to be developed to manage these priority pathways will be an important tool for preventing biological invasions in the future.