Fine-scale invasion genetics of the quarantine pest, Anoplophora glabripennis, reconstructed in single outbreaks
MetadataShow full item record
The xylophagous cerambycid Anoplophora glabripennis, the Asian long-horned beetle (ALB), is highly polyphagous and can colonize a wide range of broadleaved host trees causing significant economic damage. For this reason, it is considered a quarantine pest in Europe and North America. Although the global spread of ALB has been depicted recently, no comprehensive studies exist on the genetic pattern of populations’ establishment and dynamics at fine-scale (i.e. within invasive outbreaks), before eradication measures are applied. This information may, however, be particularly important for an efficient management and control of invasive pests. Here, we characterized population genetic diversity and patterns of spread of ALB within and among the four outbreaks detected in Switzerland between 2011 and 2015. For this, we genotyped 223 specimens at 15 nuclear microsatellite loci and conducted specific population-based analyses. Our study shows: (1) At least three independent introductions and a, human-mediated, secondary dispersal event leading to the four outbreaks in the country; (2) An overall low intra-population genetic diversity in the viable and several years active invasive populations; (3) A colonization of single trees by homogeneous ALB genotypes; And (4) an establishment of populations several generations prior to its official discovery.