• The BIOTA Observatories 

      Mager, D.; Et al (Klaus Hess Publishers, 2010)
      The BIOTA Southern Africa transects (Fig. 1, on left side) have been designed to describe biodiversity changes in space and time along two major climatic gradients in the western part of southern Africa (see also ...
    • Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study 

      Boyero, L.; Pearson, R.G.; Hui, C.; Gessner, M.O.; Perez, J.; Alexandrou, M.A.; Graca, M.A.S.; Cardinale, B.J.; Albarino, R.J.; Arunachalam, M.; Barmuta, L.A.; Boulton, A.J.; Bruder, A.; Callisto, M.; Chauvet, E.; Death, R.G.; Dudgeon, D.; Encalada, A.C.; Ferreira, V.; Figueroa, R.; Flecker, A.S.; Goncalves Jr, J.F.; Helson, J.; Iwata, T.; Jinggut, T.; Mathooko, J.; Mathuriau, C.; M'Erimba, C.; Moretti, M.S.; Pringle, C.M.; Ramirez, A.; Ratnarajah, L.; Rincon, J.; Yule, C.M. (The Royal Society Publishing, 2016)
      Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available ...
    • Biotic homogenization and alien bird species along an urban gradient in South Africa 

      van Rensburg, Berndt; Peacock, Derick; Robertson, Mark (Elsevier, 2009-09-30)
      Similar to the process seen in invasion biology, urbanized environments lead to biotic homogenization with a few species, often alien, dominating the urban habitat. We investigated avian communities across an urban gradient ...
    • Bird and bat predation services in tropical forests and agroforestry landscapes 

      Maas, B.; Karp, D.S.; Bumrungsri, S.; Darras, K.; Gonthier, D.; Huang, J.C.C.; Lindell, C.A.; Maine, J.J.; Mestre, L.; Michel, N.L.; Morrison, E.B.; Perfecto, I.; Philpott, S.M.; Sekercioglu, C.H.; Silva, R.M.; Taylor, P.J.; Tscharntke, T.; Van Bael, S.A.; Whelan, C.J.; Williams-Guillen, K. (Cambridge Philosophical Society, 2016)
      Understanding distribution patterns and multitrophic interactions is critical for managing bat- and bird-mediated ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest and non-pest arthropods. Despite the ecological and ...
    • A bird pollinator shows positive frequency dependence and constancy of species choice in natural plant communities 

      Schmid, B.; Nottebrock, H.; Esler, K.J.; Pagel, J.; Bohning-Gaese, K.; Schurr, F.M.; Mueller, T.; Schleuning, M. (Ecological Society of America, 2016)
      Animal pollinators mediate reproduction of many plant species. Foraging theory suggests that animal pollinators exhibit preferences for common plant species in natural communities (positive frequency-dependent foraging) ...
    • Blender interstitial volume: a novel virtual measurement of structural complexity applicable to marine benthic habitats 

      Sadchatheeswara, S.; Moloney, C.L.; Branch, G.M.; Robinson, T.B. (2019)
      Blender interstitial volume is a novel method that utilizes 3D modeling techniques to accurately and efficiently quantify the volume of interstitial gaps in marine benthic habitats, as well as the space provided by substrate ...
    • Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK 

      Blackburn, T.M.; Monroe, M.J.; Lawson, B.; Cassey, P.; Ewen, J.G. (Pensoft, 2013-06-28)
      One feature of global geographic variation in avian body sizes is that they are larger on isolated islands than on continental regions. Therefore, this study aims to assess whether there have been changes in body size ...
    • Body size patterns in Drosophila inhabiting a mesocosm: interactive effects of spatial variation in temperature and abundance 

      Warren, M; McGeoch, MA; Nicolson, SW; Chown, SL (SPRINGER, 2006-08)
      Body size is a major component of fitness. However, the relative contributions of different factors to optimal size, and the determinants of spatial and temporal variation in size, have not been fully established empirically. ...
    • Body size variation in insects: a macroecological perspective 

      Chown, S.L.; Gaston, K.J. (Cambridge Philosophical Society, 2010)
      Body size is a key feature of organisms and varies continuously because of the effects of natural selection on the size-dependency of resource acquisition and mortality rates. This review provides a critical and ...
    • The Bogert Effect and environmental heterogeneity 

      Logan, M.L.; van Berkel, J.; Clusella-Trullas, S. (2019)
      A classic question in evolutionary biology is whether behavioral flexibility hastens or hinders evolutionary change. The latter idea, that behavior reduces the number of environmental states experienced by an organism and ...
    • Boom-bust dynamics in biological invasions: towards an improved application of the concept 

      Strayer, D.L.; D'Antonio, C.M.; Essl, F.; Fowler, M.S.; Geist, J.; Hilt, S.; Jarić, I.; Jöhnk, K.; Jones, C.G.; Lambin, X.; Latzka, A.W.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Robertson, P.; von Schmalensee, M.; Stefansson, R.A.; Wright, J.; Jeschke, J.M. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS, 2017)
      Boom-bust dynamics – the rise of a population to outbreak levels, followed by a dramatic decline – have been associated with biological invasions and offered as a reason not to manage troublesome invaders. However, boom-bust ...
    • Border control for stowaway alien species should be prioritised based on variations in establishment debt 

      Faulkner, K.T.; Robertson, M.P.; Rouget, M.; Wilson, J.R.U. (Elsevier Ltd, 2016)
      Border control is one of the major approaches used by countries to limit the number of organisms introduced as stowaways. However, it is not feasible to inspect all passengers, cargo and vehicles entering a country, and ...
    • Born to kill: Predatory functional responses of the littoral amphipod Echinogammarus marinus Leach throughout its life history 

      Alexander, M.E.; Dick, J.T.A.; O'Connor, N.E. (Elsevier, 2012)
      Studies of predator–prey interactions, and in particular the derivation of functional responses, have typically focussed on adults or single life-history stages, with subsequent food web analyses often simply using average ...
    • Both complete clearing and thinning of invasive trees lead to short-term recovery of native riparian vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa. 

      Ruwanza, S.; Gaertner, M.; Esler, K.J.; Richardson, D.M. (2013)
      Questions: Most rivers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa are heavily invaded by alien trees, often resulting in profound changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Although large-scale management operations ...
    • Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Acacia heterophylla (La Réunion) and Acacia koa (Hawaii) 

      Jami, F.; Marincowitz, S.; Slippers, B.; Crous, P.W.; Le Roux, J.J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wingfield, M.J. (2019)
      Acacia koa and A. heterophylla are commonly occurring native trees on the Hawaiian Islands and La Réunion, respectively. A recent phylogenetic study suggested that A. heterophylla renders A. koa paraphyletic, and that the ...
    • The bottom line: impacts of alien plant invasions in protected areas 

      Foxcroft, L.C.; Pyšek, P.; Richardson, D.M.; Pergl, J.; Hulme, P.E. (Springer, Dordrecht, 2013)
      Phrases like “invasive species pose significant threats to biodiversity. . .” are often used to justify studying and managing biological invasions. Most biologists agree that this is true and quantitative studies support ...
    • Breaching the dispersal barrier to invasion: quantification and management 

      Lee, J.E.; Chown, S.L. (Ecological Society of America, 2009)
      Globalization has resulted in unprecedented movements of people, goods, and alien species across the planet. Although the impacts of biological invasions are widely appreciated, a bias exists in research effort to ...
    • Breeding systems of invasive alien plants 

      Rambuda, T; Johnson, SD (2004-11-01)
      According to Baker’s Rule, plant species capable of uniparental reproduction are more likely to be successful colonists than are self-incompatible or dioecious species. Controlled pollination experiments carried out on 17 ...
    • A brief histoty of marine bio-invasions in South Africa 

      Griffiths, C.L.; Mead, A.; Robinson, T.B. (Zoological Society of South Africa, 2009-10)
      Marine species have been introduced continuously into South Africa for more than 400 years, since the arrival of the first European explorers. Various waves of introduction can be identified over this period, each associated ...