The ecology of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae): what do we know to assist pest management?
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The distribution, systematics and ecology of Bactrocera tryoni, the Queensland fruit fly, are reviewed. Bactrocera tryoni is a member of the B. tryoni complex of species, which currently includes four named species, viz. B. tryoni ssp., B. neohumeralis, B. melas and B. aquilonis. The species status of B. melas and B. aquilonis is unclear (they may be junior synonyms of B. tryoni) and their validity, or otherwise, needs to be confirmed as a matter of urgency. While Queensland fruit fly is regarded as a tropical species, it cannot be assumed that its distribution will spread further south under climate change scenarios. Increasing aridity and hot dry summers, as well as more complex, indirect interactions resulting from elevated CO2, make predicting the future distribution and abundance of B. tryoni difficult. The ecology of B. tryoni is reviewed with respect to current control approaches (with the exception of sterile insect technique (SIT) which is covered in a companion paper). We conclude that there are major gaps in the knowledge required to implement most noninsecticide-based management approaches. Priority areas for future research include host–plant interactions, protein and cue-lure foraging and use, spatial dynamics, development of new monitoring tools, investigating the use of natural enemies and better integration of fruit flies into general horticultural IPM systems.