Macroecology of global bryophyte invasions at different invasion stages
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In this study we provide the first comprehensive assessment of the environmental and anthropogenic factors driving bryophyte invasions worldwide. We compiled data of alien bryophyte distributions from 82 regions on five continents and oceanic islands and region specific variables. For each species, we collected data on its region-specific invasion stage, i.e. casual (ephemeral) vs naturalized (persistent) occurrences, and we differentiated between known aliens and those which are likely to be alien (cryptogenic). We used these data to test how species attributes, environmental and socio-economic conditions of the study areas as well as introduction effort affect invasion probabilities at different invasion stages and of known alien vs cryptogenic species. We collected information on species ’ attributes (native range size and location, niche breadth, habitat affiliation), and calculated variables characterising the environmental, biogeographic and socio-economic features of the native and recepient regions. Subsequently, we related the probability of alien occurrence across different invasion stages with these species- and region-wise predictor variables using generalized linear mixed effects models. Greater native range size raised the likelihood that a species becomes alien or cryptogenic. Islands are more invaded by alien (and cryptogenic) bryophytes than continental regions. Native range size and socio-economic activity increase the likelihood that a species becomes alien or cryptogenic elsewhere. Interestingly, among alien bryophytes naturalizations occur more frequently in regions of the complementary hemisphere than in regions of their native hemisphere. In general, regions in the Southern Hemisphere have higher numbers of naturalized bryophytes. We conclude that there is a conspicuous change in factors determining bryophyte invasions at different invasion stages. Whereas alien and cryptogenic bryophyte species occurrences are more frequent on islands and depend on native range size, and hence probably propagule pressure, naturalized bryophytes are more frequent in areas which are biogeographically separated but climatically similar to the native ranges.
- RESEARCH: CIB Associates