Approaches and mechanisms for ecologically based pest management across multiple scales
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The past 50 years have seen substantial change of agroecosystems in the world, including an intensified use of agrochemicals and expansion of cropland, resulting in a rapid loss of biodiversity and a reduction of ecosystem services. The effects of these changes, at both the field and landscape scale, on ecologically based pest management (EBPM) in agroecosystems have become increasingly important. Here, we review the theories, important approaches and mechanisms of habitat management practices (at multiple spatial scales) that can be applied to facilitate EBPM in crop fields and even over larger landscapes. In particular, we discuss links between pest outbreaks and rapid changes of habitat composition at local and regional scales. We also summarize recent progress of habitat management and their application to pest management, which is an activity that we believe must be implemented at multiple spatial scales to successfully conserve ecosystem services and address environmental issues related to crop pest control.
- RESEARCH: Hui C