Ecology and management of invasive Pinaceae around the world: progress and challenges
van Wilgen, B.W.
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Many species in the family Pinaceae are invaders. These species are relatively easy to control because of some of their intrinsic characteristics and because they are highly visible and easy to eliminate. Many Pinaceae species have been well studied because of their use in forestry and their invasive behavior in many countries. The impacts of invasive Pinaceae are not only ecological, but also economic and social. We review the ecology and management of Pinaceae invasions and explore how restoration of invaded areas should be addressed. There are many ways to prevent invasions and to deal with them. Planting less invasive species, better site selection, and invasion monitoring are used successfully in different parts of the world to prevent invasion. Mechanical and chemical methods are used effectively to control Pinaceae invasions. Control is more effective at the early stages of invasion. Old invasions are more problematic as their elimination is more expensive, and the restoration of native vegetation is challenging. In some areas, native vegetation cannot thrive after Pinaceae have been removed, and weeds colonize cleared areas. More attention is needed to prevent the initiation and spread of invasions by focusing control interventions at early stages of invasion. Finding new ways of dealing sustainably with conflicts of interest between foresters and conservationists is crucial. Non-native Pinaceae are important parts of the economies and landscapes in several countries and they will continue to play such a role in the future. Despite the numerous challenges facing Pinaceae invasion management, several approaches can be successful at controlling them. Proper application of current techniques and development of more efficient ones is needed if the goal of maximizing benefits and minimizing negative impacts is to be achieved.