Human health risks of metal and metalloids in muscle tissue of Synodontis zambezensis Peters, 1852 from Flag Boshielo Dam, South Africa
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Muscle tissue from 63 Synodontis zambezensis collected bimonthly in 2013 at Flag Boshielo Dam were analysed for metals and metalloids in a desktop human health risk assessment. The Hazard Quotient, based on a weekly meal of 67 g of fish muscle, exceeded the maximum acceptable level of one for lead, cobalt, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and selenium. The concentrations of these elements were higher in 2013 than those recorded in 2009 and 2012 in other fish species from Flag Boshielo Dam and these may pose a long-term health risk if consumed regularly by impoverished rural communities reliant on fish as a source of protein.