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dc.contributor.authorEssl, F.
dc.contributor.authorDawson, W
dc.contributor.authorKreft, H.
dc.contributor.authorPergl, J.
dc.contributor.authorPyšek, P.
dc.contributor.authorVan Kleunen, M.
dc.contributor.authorWeigelt, P.
dc.contributor.authorMang, T.
dc.contributor.authorDullinger, S.
dc.contributor.authorLenzner, B.
dc.contributor.authorMoser, D.
dc.contributor.authorMaurel, N.
dc.contributor.authorSeebens, H.
dc.contributor.authorStein, A.
dc.contributor.authorWeber, E.
dc.contributor.authorChatelain, C.
dc.contributor.authorInderjit
dc.contributor.authorGenovesi, P.
dc.contributor.authorKartesz, J.
dc.contributor.authorMorozova, O.
dc.contributor.authorNishino, M.
dc.contributor.authorNowak, P.
dc.contributor.authorPagad, S.
dc.contributor.authorShu, W.-S.
dc.contributor.authorWinter, M.
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-11T08:16:22Z
dc.date.available2020-02-11T08:16:22Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.citationEssl, F., Dawson, W., Kreft, H., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Van Kleunen, M., Weigelt, P., Mang, T., Dullinger, S., Lenzner, B., Moser, D., Maurel, N., Seebens, H., Stein, A., Weber, E., Chatelain, C., Inderjit, Genovesi, P., Kartesz, J., Morozova, O., Nishino, M., Nowak, P., Pagad, S., Shu, W.-S. and Winter, M. (2019). Drivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earth. AoB Plants 11, plz051, 13 pages. DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/plz051.en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2777
dc.description.abstractBiological invasions are a defining feature of the Anthropocene, but the factors that determine the spatially uneven distribution of alien plant species are still poorly understood. Here, we present the first global analysis of the effects of biogeographic factors, the physical environment and socio-economy on the richness of naturalized and invasive alien plants. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models and variation partitioning to disentangle the relative importance of individual factors, and, more broadly, of biogeography, physical environment and socio-economy. As measures of the magnitude of permanent anthropogenic additions to the regional species pool and of species with negative environmental impacts, we calculated the relative richness of naturalized (= RRN) and invasive (= RRI) alien plant species numbers adjusted for the number of native species in 838 terrestrial regions. Socio-economic factors (per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), population density, proportion of agricultural land) were more important in explaining RRI (~50 % of the explained variation) than RRN (~40 %). Warm-temperate and (sub)tropical regions have higher RRN than tropical or cooler regions. We found that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for invasive than for naturalized species richness. The expectation that the southern hemisphere is more invaded than the northern hemisphere was confirmed only for RRN on islands, but not for mainland regions nor for RRI. On average, islands have ~6-fold RRN, and >3-fold RRI compared to mainland regions. Eighty-two islands (=26 % of all islands) harbour more naturalized alien than native plants. Our findings challenge the widely held expectation that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for plant naturalization than for invasive plants. To meet international biodiversity targets and halt the detrimental consequences of plant invasions, it is essential to disrupt the connection between socio-economic development and plant invasions by improving pathway management, early detection and rapid response.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.subjectAlien species richnessen_ZA
dc.subjectbiogeographyen_ZA
dc.subjectinvasion stagesen_ZA
dc.subjectislandsen_ZA
dc.subjectpressuresen_ZA
dc.subjectvascular plantsen_ZA
dc.titleDrivers of the relative richness of naturalized and invasive plant species on Earthen_ZA
dc.typeJournalArticlesen_ZA
dc.cibjournalAoB Plantsen_ZA
dc.cibprojectNAen_ZA


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